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MAAT: About the Pollutants

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) arises mainly in the process of burning fossil fuels with contain sulphur and its compounds. It is toxic, attacks most often air passages and vocal cords. After entering the walls of air passages it gets into blood and then to the whole organism. It cumulates in the trachea walls, bronchi, spleen and in the lever, brain and noduses. The high condensation of SO2 can also affect the cornea of the eye. The most harmful for human health is the pollution of air by SO2 and the sulphates and also the mixture of SO2, solid particles and other substances arising while burning minerals.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) the main kinds of oxides present in the atmosphere are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). NO is more active and quickly changes into NO2. It is a toxic gas. It affects organism' immunity from bacterial infections, irritated eyes and breathing apparatus, causes disturbances in breathing and allergic diseases (e.g. asthma). Nitrogen oxides are precursors of cancerigenous and mutagenous compounds arising in the soil. In connection with gas hydrocarbons they create the phenomenon of photochemical smog (summer one) in certain atmospheric conditions. After oxidizing with water vapour they take part in creating acid rains and in their destructive action

Dusts irritate mucosa and outer skin. The most dangerous are the tiniest dusts of particle size 5 mikrogram/m3, which easily get into the organism causing its posioning, inflammation of air passages, anthracosis, lung cancers, allergic diseases and asthma.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas which is emitted into the atmosphere as a result of combustion processes. It causes serious poisoning (asphyxiation). The most sensitive is the brain. About 80 % of CO contained in the air is assimilated with hemoglobin in blood, creating carboksyhemoglobine (HbCO), incapable of carrying oxygen, what leads to anoxia. With the presence of about 20% HbCO in blood there appears, the so-called "acute brain-syndrome", which is characterised by decrease of vigilance and distinguishing, sleepiness, lack of orientation, at last it can lead to coma and death. After long exposition in the conditions of high condensation of CO also heart muscle can be harmed.

Ozone (O3) in a natural way arises at the height of 30-50 km. At the height of 25 km ozone does not arise, and also does not disintegrte. Settling slowly it creates the maximum concentration at the height of 23 km. This layer of atmosphere is stratosphere, in which there is almost 90% of ozone. To the low, dense layers of atmosphere ozone gets in small amounts and it disintegrates quickly. It is troposphere, whose ceiling reaches the height of 8-17 km (depending on geographical latitude), which contains about 10% of ozone. In the stratosphere the ozone stands for "protective shield" which protects the biosphere of Earth, in troposphere it is not required as it is a hothouse gas. Troposphere ozone is the regenerated pollutant. It arises as a result of photochemical reactions, which take place in the air polluted with nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (these are mainly reactions of transformations of oxygen nitrogen compounds) coming from anthropogenic sources, mainly road transport. High temperature, big insolation and high humidity is conductive to form the ozone. At higher condensations ozone causes eye irritation, mainly conjuctivitis, changes in sight parameters, changes in lungs work (especially among children), more frequent asthma attacks and increase of skin cancer morbidity.

Substances, which cause the formation of ground ozone in the air:
Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ethane, etalon, acetylene, propane, propylene, butane, i-butane, trans-2-butane, cis-2-butane, 1,3 butadiene, pentane, i-pentane, 1-pentene, 2-pentene, isoprene, hexane, i-hexane, heptanes, octane, i-octane, benzene, toluene, etylobenzene, m+p- xylem, o-xylem, 1,2,4 -trimetylobenzene, 1,2,3 - trimetylobenzene 1,3,5- trimetylobenzene, formaldehyde, hydrocarbons other than methane in general.

Ammonia(NH3) is the gas of characterisitic, irritating smell. Harmful substance, irritates strongly mucosa of air passages, eyes and skin. It causes painful feeling of irritation in the throat, cough, salivtion, sickness, eye water, headaches. At high doses there may appear ulceration resulting in perforation and then follows a serious eye damae, which may result in the loss of eye sight. People, who suffered from poisoning of ammonia usually have irreversible changes in lungs and air passages. Frequent staying in the atmosphere containing ammonia may result in chronic catarrh of air passages and disturbances in digestion and metabolic rate.

Benzene is the substance, which affects human organism in a toxic way. The vapors of this substance cause the irritation of mucosa and eyes, and in higher condensations also of skin. Main symptoms of poisonings are connected with the nervous system. The results of the poisoning are: tiredness, headaches and dizziness, and the daze with some euphori similar to inebriation, total loss of strength and difficult breathing, and in serious cases loss of consciousness.

Projekt finansowany w ramach Regionalnego Programu Operacyjnego dla Województwa Pomorskiego na lata 2014 – 2020.

Beneficjent projektu:
Fundacja ARMAG